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Thread: Bell's palsy

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    Bell's palsy

    A patient with Wikipedia reference-linkBell's palsy under my care recently.

    Apart from electrical stimulation, massage and exercise, what other ideas do you have?

    I also want to know the effectiveness of acupuncture in this type of patient.

    Similar Threads:

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    Wink

    Hi tunglokc,

    There are already a number of useful posts on the forum surrounding Wikipedia reference-linkBell's Palsy. Might I suggest you click on the tags section on the navigation bar at the top of this page. If you then click on the word Palsy would will be taken to a few of these posts.

    I hope this assists.

    Aussie trained Physiotherapist living and working in London, UK.
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    Re:Bell's Palsy

    Some briefing about the Facial Palsy or Wikipedia reference-linkBell's palsy is as under:

    Facial palsy is condition in which there is lesion of the facial nerve and the resultant paralysis in the muscles that it supplies. So there will be following features on the side of lesion:

    Loss of facial expression.
    Drooping of the face- Low eyelid, eyebrow and corner of mouth sag.
    Closing the eye is difficult.
    Eating is difficult because food collects in the side of the cheek and fluid seeps out of the corner of mouth.
    Speaking, whistling and drinking are impaired.
    Non-verbal communication is lost as the patient cannot register the pleasure, laughter, surprise, interest and worry.
    The patient tends to sit with the hand over the side of face.

    There is difference between an upper motor neuron lesion and lower motor neuron lesion of the facial palsy.

    A unilateral UMN lesion usually spares the forehead as it is also innervated from the other side of the brain; however an LMN lesion affects all of one side of the face.

    An upper motor neuron lesion causes weakness of lower part of face on the side opposite the lesion. The frontalis muscle is spared; the normal furrowing of the brow is preserved, and the eye closure and blinking are not affected.
    Moreover, in upper motor neuron lesion there relative preservation of spontaneous 'emotional' movement (e.g. smiling) compared with voluntary movement.

    Causes of facial weakness:

    These are as under:

    The common cause of facial weakness is a supranuclear lesion e.g. cerebral infarction leading to upper motor neuron facial weakness and hemiparesis.
    Lesions at four other levels may be recognized by the associated signs.

    PONS. The sixth nerve nucleus is encircled by the seventh nerve fibers and is therefore involved in the pontine lesions of the nerve, causing lateral rectus palsy.
    If there is accompanying damage to the neighboring centre for the lateral gaze and the cortispinal tract, there is the combination of:
    LMN facial weakness
    Failure of congugate lateral gaze (toward the lesion)
    Contra lateral hemiparesis
    Causes include pontine tumours (e.g. glioma), demyelination and vascular lesions.
    The facial nucleus is affected in poliomyelitis and motor neuron disease; the lateral usually causes the bilateral weakness.

    CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE. The fifth, sixth and eight nerves are affected with the seventh nerve in lesions in the cerebellopontine angle. Causes are acoustic neuroma and miningoma.

    WITHIN THE PETROUS TEMPORAL BONE. The geniculate ganglion (a sensory ganglion for taste) lies at the genu of the facial nerve. Fibers join the facial nerve in the chorda tympani and carry taste from the anterior two third of the tongue. The (motor) nerve to the stapedius muscle leaves the facial nerve distal to the genu.

    Lesions within the petrous temporal bone cause:

    Loss of taste on the anterior two third of the tongue
    Hyperacusis ( an unpleasant loud distortion of noise) due to the paralysis of the stapedius muscle

    Causes include:

    Bell's palsy
    Trauma
    Infectin of middle ear
    Herpes zoster (Ramsay hunt syndrome)
    Tumours (e.g. glomus tumour)

    WITHIN THE FACE. Branches of the facial nerve pierce the parotid gland and supply the muscle of the facial expression. The nerve can be damaged here by parotid gland tumours, mumps (epidemic parotitis), sarcoidosis and trauma. The nerve is also affected in the polyneuritis (e.g. G.B. Syndrome) usually bilaterally.

    Weakness of face also occurs in primary muscle disease and disease of neuromuscular junction. Weakness is usually bilateral. Causes include:

    Dystrophia myotonica
    Facio-scapulo humeral dystrophy
    Myasthenia gravis
    Bell's palsy
    this is a common acute, isolated facial nerve palsy believed to be due to viral infection (most probably herpes simplex) that causes swelling of the nerve within the petrous temporal bone.

    MANAGEMENT:

    Spontaneous recovery occurs toward the end of second week. Thereafter, continuing recovery occur. Fifty percent recover within three months. Continuing recovery may take 12 months to become complete. About 15 percent of patients are left with a severe unsightly residual weakness.

    Medical:

    Steroids (prednisolone 60mg daily reducing to nil over 10 days.)
    Acyclovir for viral infection

    Physiotherapy:

    During the paralysis:

    Ultrasound given over the nerve trunk in front of the tragus of ear and in area between mastoid process and mandible. There is no fear of applying ultrasound while doing the treatment of patient with Bell's palsy. The ultrasound is always applied on the side of lesion in front of the tragus of ear & in area between the mastoid process and mandible where the maximum tenderness of the facial nerve is determined by palpation. It is applied in slow circular motion with a starting dosage of 1 watt per square centimeter. The dosage may be increased on the subsequent sessions if no remarkable improvement is noted. Let me explain that ultrasound waves cannot traverse the bone. That means ultrasound has zero penetration in the bone. Infact, ultrasound waves are reflected away from the bone. So there is no fear in applying the ultrasound on face. (This is only for LMN lesion type)

    low level laser therapy (infrared 808 nanometer wavelength 400 mill watt power for 5 minutes continuous)

    Infra-red: Infra red may be applied to warm the muscles and improve the function, but you must ensure that eyes are protected with linens when you are applying infra-red to face. Timing should be for 15 to 20 minutes.

    Ultraviolet Therapy: Formerly ultraviolet was frequently used to give third degree erythema doses over the facial nerve trunk and in area between mastoid process and mandible to combat the infection and inflammation.

    Microwave diathermy: As far as micro wave diathermy application is concerned, there is strict contra indication for the use of micro wave diathermy for the treatment of face as micro waves can spread randomly and can damage the lense of eye causing the opacity of the lense. So there is no room for the application of micro wave to face.

    Short Wave Diathermy: SWD can be safely applied for the treatment of facial palsy. The technique used may be monopolar or bi polar. In bipolar technique using the capacitor field method, the one facial mask electrode is used as an active electrode for applying the rays to face while the second or indifferent electrode used on some distant part of the body to complete the circuit. In monopolar electrode method only one electrode is used to direct the rays to the target treatment area site and no second electrode is used at all.

    Electrical Stimulation: The only form of electrical current used on face is interrupted direct current (I.D.C.). This is requested only to preserve the bulk of facial muscle and to prevent their atrophy while waiting them to be in faction whenever their re innervations arrives in case of axotomesis or reconditioning after neuropraxia if the nerve is not damaged completely. There is no room for the use of faradic current use on the face as it could lead to cause secondary contractures of the face.

    Massage: Massage may be taught to the patient
    stroking in the upward, outward direction.
    Slow finger kneading applied over the paralyzed muscles maintains skin suppleness and muscle elasticity.
    These techniques applied daily for 5 minutes or so help to maintain lymphatic and blood flow and prevent contractures.

    During Recovery:

    PNF techniques are used for re-education:

    Quick stretch can be applied to regain rising of eye brow and the movement of the corner of mouth.

    The physiotherapist can produce the movement passively and then ask the patient to hold, and then try to produce the movement.

    Icing, brushing, tapping or brisk stroking may be applied along the length of the muscles. e.g. Zygomaticus

    Exercises:

    Look surprised then frown
    Squeeze eyes closed then open wide
    Smile, grin, say 'o'.
    Say a, e, i, o, u.
    Hold straw in mouth-suck and blow
    Whistle

    Heliotherapy:I have found traditional old lay men to use the convex lense to focus the sun rays to produce the third or four degree erythematic dosage to facial nerve trunk and in area between mandible and mastoid process behind the ear and it frequently gives dramatic result with excellent recovery of facial palsy. The treatment was needed to repeat after one week to repeat the same session of the dosage. Only three or four sessions of this kind were needed to do the excellent management of the patient. Infact, it is one kind of heliotherapy treatment which is available from the natural source of power i.e. the sun. This is most common form of physiotherapy medicine that is used by conventional lay men here in Pakistan with excellent results of the treatment.


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    Tungo and all ,

    As for facial palsy and Bell,s palsy ,try to be so gently because you may share in developing complications to the patient like the most common problem Synkinesis that can develop simply because of pushing forward for improving the muscle power .I do NOT support using electrotherapy espicially using long times /periods e.g. Ultrasound therapy ,current research says it can has side effects over nerves .

    After long time of dealing with facial palsy ,i think the most appropriate for those victims is Education regarding what can share in developing Synkinesis which usually occurs in severe facial nerve injuries .
    Currently , i use Imagery exercises of the facial muscles to activate cortical presentations and at the same time avoid developing synkinesis .

    Best Wishes
    Emad


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    Exclamation About US on face

    To Sdkashif:

    I saw your replay for few times that you are using ultrasound on face for Bells palsy. Thatís always makes me mad! I donít know why you are so insisting on doing that when last time there was many people that disagree with you. What are you try to accomplish? I thought you did some research on that topic but you apparently did not. So I posting whole article about penetration of low frequency ultrasound on human cranium in vitro. There are many researches on this or similar topics if you want you can inform your self.
    And again, aria of the head, easy, ears, ovaries, testicles, brain, spinal cord are highly ultrasound-sensitive organs!!!
    This is the articles:
    Low-frequency Ultrasound Penetrates the Cranium and Enhances Thrombolysis In Vitro.
    Technique Assessments
    Neurosurgery. 43(4):828-832, October 1998.
    Akiyama, Masahiko MD; Ishibashi, Toshihiro MD; Yamada, Tetsu MD; Furuhata, Hiroshi MD
    Abstract:
    OBJECTIVE: Refinements of treatment methods are sought to rapidly reduce the volume of intracranial clots and to decrease patient exposure to possible complications of thrombolytic therapy for intracranial hematomas. We assessed the possibility of adding ultrasonication using model systems including human blood clots and temporal bone in vitro.
    METHODS: The transmittance of ultrasound through temporal bone obtained at autopsy was compared between the frequencies 211.5 KHz and 1.03 MHz, using a meter to determine the power delivered. The frequency 211.5 KHz was chosen to assess the ultrasound effect on the weight of 24-hour-old clots prepared from human blood after exposures at 37[degrees]C to 2 mg/ml urokinase with no additional treatment, ultrasound, or agitation during an interval of up to 12 hours. At these times, fibrin degradation products also were measured.
    RESULTS: The transmittance of low-frequency ultrasound (211.5 KHz) through temporal bone was approximately 40%, which is four times higher than that of high-frequency ultrasound (1.03 MHz). Ultrasound but not agitation significantly increased clot lysis (140% of lysis with urokinase alone), with correspondingly increased fibrin degradation products.
    CONCLUSION: We conclude that low-frequency ultrasound transmits well through human temporal bone and enhances thrombolysis in vitro. Clinically, this method may be promising for reducing dosages of thrombolytic agents and shortening the period of clot removal. Copyright (C) by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons


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    Nale ,

    The problem is there is a like post before you to thank that post which endorse Ultrasound therapy and all electrotherapy in facial palsy .
    Physiotherapists need to learn more ,reflect more ,search more ......in case of facial palsy we are facing great challange from those people with residuals following facial palsies .Any physio. may be lucky to encounter first Bell,s palsies which could resolve with nothing ,but in case of severe facial nerve affections ,residuals if the victim ,the therapist ,the society are aware of synkinesis every thing pass! They may say to the patient there was no chance better than what we did .

    Cheers
    Emad


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    Red face

    Quote Originally Posted by 1234nale View Post
    Low-frequency Ultrasound Penetrates the Cranium and Enhances Thrombolysis In Vitro.
    Technique Assessments
    Neurosurgery. 43(4):828-832, October 1998.
    Akiyama, Masahiko MD; Ishibashi, Toshihiro MD; Yamada, Tetsu MD; Furuhata, Hiroshi MD
    Abstract:
    OBJECTIVE: Refinements of treatment methods are sought to rapidly reduce the volume of intracranial clots and to decrease patient exposure to possible complications of thrombolytic therapy for intracranial hematomas. We assessed the possibility of adding ultrasonication using model systems including human blood clots and temporal bone in vitro.
    METHODS: The transmittance of ultrasound through temporal bone obtained at autopsy was compared between the frequencies 211.5 KHz and 1.03 MHz, using a meter to determine the power delivered. The frequency 211.5 KHz was chosen to assess the ultrasound effect on the weight of 24-hour-old clots prepared from human blood after exposures at 37[degrees]C to 2 mg/ml urokinase with no additional treatment, ultrasound, or agitation during an interval of up to 12 hours. At these times, fibrin degradation products also were measured.
    RESULTS: The transmittance of low-frequency ultrasound (211.5 KHz) through temporal bone was approximately 40%, which is four times higher than that of high-frequency ultrasound (1.03 MHz). Ultrasound but not agitation significantly increased clot lysis (140% of lysis with urokinase alone), with correspondingly increased fibrin degradation products.
    CONCLUSION: We conclude that low-frequency ultrasound transmits well through human temporal bone and enhances thrombolysis in vitro. Clinically, this method may be promising for reducing dosages of thrombolytic agents and shortening the period of clot removal. Copyright (C) by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons
    I expect this persons post is pasted from an online text book. However, after reading your post I am not sure what your point is here. Lysis by definition refers to the death of a cell by bursting, often by viral or osmotic mechanisms that compromise the integrity of the cellular membrane. Formation of blood clots lies at the basis of a number of serious diseases. By breaking down the clot, thrombolysis, the disease process can be arrested, or the complications reduced. I expect the reference in this study therefore refers to the breakdown of a blood clot (I think therefore a positive thing?).

    I cannot see any reference therefore for the NON-use of Ultrasound in the treatment of facial palsy - when specifically directed at a more superficial structure. Also most physio ultrasound heads are either 1 or 3Mz and are therefore high-frequency? The study would only suggest a 10% deeper penetration at high-frequencies, or am I missing your point?

    Please do correct me if I have missed an important consideration that your study is highlighting.

    Aussie trained Physiotherapist living and working in London, UK.
    Chartered Physiotherapist & Member of the CSP
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    I do NOT think ultrasound therapy is of benefit in case of facial nerve .Yes, i tried to find an evidence supporting the side effects of ultrasound on nerve ,i fail now to find what i have seen before ,on contrary i found researches saying ultrasound could enhance regeneration .

    From my experience in dealing with facial , i refute completely ultrasound using , those patients need to learn only what could causes residuals , all those electrotherapy could cause cross-wiring in both the nerve and cortical presentations .Which means you find the patient,s face moves automaticallly interconnected ,no control of indiviudal motions and experssions .

    Emad


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    Post Bells Palsy

    Quote Originally Posted by tunglokc View Post
    A patient with Bell's palsy under my care recently.

    Apart from electrical stimulation, massage and exercise, what other ideas do you have?

    I also want to know the effectiveness of acupuncture in this type of patient.
    These articles may be of benefit please visit the following web site i.d.

    ES Is it Helpful? - http://www.ptjournal.org/cgi/content...urcetype=HWCIT

    Exercises - http://www.ptjournal.org/cgi/reprint...urcetype=HWCIT


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    Yes, you sure missed my point!

    Sdkshif
    says''Let me explain that ultrasound waves cannot traverse the bone. That means ultrasound has zero penetration in the bone. Infact, ultrasound waves are reflected away from the bone. So there is no fear in applying the ultrasound on face.''

    The study was done for different purpose but that study proves that US penetrates the human temporal bone, thatís means that us even in small portion get to brain tissue that is very us sensitive and substantial for proliferation. My point was donít use methods for what you are not sure what is the greater benefit (cause there is not enough study to support beneficial effect on nerve recovery) or risk factor (cause US may reach to brain tissue). Always ask your self what you try to accomplish.


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    Wink

    Quote Originally Posted by 1234nale View Post
    Sdkshif


    The study was done for different purpose but that study proves that US penetrates the human temporal bone, thatís means that us even in small portion get to brain tissue that is very us sensitive and substantial for proliferation. My point was donít use methods for what you are not sure what is the greater benefit (cause there is not enough study to support beneficial effect on nerve recovery) or risk factor (cause US may reach to brain tissue). Always ask your self what you try to accomplish.
    No one is suggesting that they actually use US as a standard treatment in Wikipedia reference-linkBell's Palsy. However holding a tuning fork to one's head transmits sound waves to the brain. The study cited suggested that in fact US to the head in the temporal bone region might well be useful for clot lysis. One could infer from that that they are suggesting it might provide a useful tool when dealing with brain clots. They mention no precautions other than what we know to be the standard one's. i.e. apply enough gel, use an appropriate w/cm2, choose the right US head, choose the right pulse frequency and keep that thing moving. We all learn about the possibility of burning the patient from standing US waves if the head is not moved but then this is a problem when using US anywhere in the body.

    Whilst I agree with your approach to say that one should not use something in an area that we don't know that much about I cannot say that we don't know much about US. We know a lot and most of it doesn't promote it's extensive use but nor does it say we should not use it. The jury remains out on that so I suppose as clinicians we can take sides depending on the case before us and our clinical experience with past results. Thanks again for providing some debate on this topic.

    Aussie trained Physiotherapist living and working in London, UK.
    Chartered Physiotherapist & Member of the CSP
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    Sorry for confusion

    I am sorry if mentioning this study can confuse someone. I could not find better that explicitly says that US penetrate human bone. Study was performing in vitro, thatís not on the living man. And also interfering with blood cloth in the brain is matter of neurosurgeons not physios. So, letís keep our profession. In almost every book for electrotherapy there could be found contraindication for using US on aria of the head and front of the neck. But I find similar debate on this topic few times thatís why I posted this answers.


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    Bell's Palsy

    Dear 1234nale thanks for your query and questions. let me have a look over your query and answer it.

    Low-frequency Ultrasound Penetrates the Cranium and Enhances Thrombolysis In Vitro.
    The article that you have mentioned tells that low frequency ultrasound only penetrates the cranium while The frequencies used in therapy are typically between 1.0 and 3.0 MHz (1MHz = 1 million cycles per second). And these are high frequencies and therefore there will be no chance of penetration with high frequencies.

    Ultrasound is a form of MECHANICAL energy, not electrical energy and therefore strictly speaking, not really electrotherapy at all. Mechanical vibration at increasing frequencies is known as sound energy. Below about 16Hz, these vibrations are not recognisable as sound, and the normal human sound range is from 16Hz to something approaching 15-20,000 Hz (in children and young adults). Beyond this upper limit, the mechanical vibration is known as ULTRASOUND. The frequencies used in therapy are typically between 1.0 and 3.0 MHz (1MHz = 1 million cycles per second). For detail about ultrasound see Therapeutic ultrasound

    And again, aria of the head, easy, ears, ovaries, testicles, brain, spinal cord are highly ultrasound-sensitive organs!!!
    I understand you concern regarding the contraindications of ultrasound. every good therapist is well aware of contra indication of ultrasound. Let me mention contraindication of ultrasound here. Please also see the detail for contraindications Contraindications of Ultrasound

    CONTRAINDICATIONS OF ULTRASOUND

    Avoid exposure to the developing foetus
    Malignancy
    Vascular abnormalities including DVT and severe atherosclerosis
    Acute infections
    Haemophiliacs not covered by replacement factor
    Application over :
    Specialised tissue e.g. eye and testes
    The stellate ganglion
    The cardiac area in advanced heart disease
    The spinal cord following laminectomy
    The cranium
    Active epiphyseal regions in children

    PRECAUTIONS OF ULTRASOUND

    Anaesthetic areas should be treated with caution if a thermal dose is being applied
    Subcutaneous major nerves and bony prominences
    Always use the lowest intensity which produces a therapeutic response
    Ensure that the applicator is moved throughout the treatment
    Ensure that the patient is aware of the nature of the treatment and the expected effects
    If pain, discomfort or unexpected sensations are experienced by the ptient, the treatment intensity should be
    reduced. If the symptoms persist, the treatment should be terminated.

    My point was donít use methods for what you are not sure what is the greater benefit
    There is recommendation in good physiotherapy text book for the use of ultrasound. During paralysis, ultrasound given over the nerve trunk just in front of the tragus of the ear may reduce the inflammation. For Reference see " Tidy's Physiotherapy 12th Edition page #162"

    See For more information upon ultrasound dosage calculation

    However, let me say that I was mentioning ultrasound recommendation only during the paralysis phase of Wikipedia reference-linkBell's palsy when the nerve is inflammed. There are also other options available for reducing inflammation like LASER, SWD. However, these are only of benefity during the stage of paralysis.

    There are other modes of treatment like electrical stimulation and exercises. for detail you may see the articles below.

    Evidence In Practice- Does electrical stimulation improve motor recovery in patients with idiopathic facial (Bell) palsy?

    Physical therapy for Facial Palsy- A tailored treatment approach


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    Thanks

    Thanks for enlightening us about US therapy methods but nobody did put that in question. Just you confirm my point of view: why use unsafe methods, when you have more safe ones with no risk for same result?


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    Wink

    Quote Originally Posted by 1234nale View Post
    Thanks for enlightening us about US therapy methods but nobody did put that in question. Just you confirm my point of view: why use unsafe methods, when you have more safe ones with no risk for same result?
    OK guys. Enough now on ultrasound. Now let's all please only remark on any other ideas as asked by the original question below.
    A patient with Bell's palsy under my care recently.

    Apart from electrical stimulation, massage and exercise, what other ideas do you have?

    I also want to know the effectiveness of acupuncture in this type of patient.
    thanks

    Aussie trained Physiotherapist living and working in London, UK.
    Chartered Physiotherapist & Member of the CSP
    Member of Physio First (Chartered Physio's in Private Practice)
    Member Australian Physiotherapy Association
    Founder Physiobase.com 1996 | PhysioBob.com | This Forum | The PhysioLive Network | Physiosure |
    __________________________________________________ _____________________________

    My goal has always to be to get the global physiotherapy community talking & exchanging ideas on an open platform
    Importantly to help clients to be empowered and seek a proactive & preventative approach to health
    To actively seek to develop a sustainable alternative to the evils of Private Medical Care / Insurance

    Follow Me on Twitter

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    Physiobob,

    I think a worth point ,When to begin our role as therapists with facial Palsy ?

    Emad


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    Quote Originally Posted by emad View Post
    Physiobob,

    I think a worth point ,When to begin our role as therapists with facial Palsy ?

    Emad
    I have always begun asap with facial palsy. The moral or sense of the self is usually pretty darn low following a facial palsy. People often think they have had a stroke and that in someway they are facing a death sentence somewhere in the near future. Physiotherapy has a strong educational role as well as a direct treatment. if is often the PT who has the time to explore the disease process and explain things to the client. Thus on this point alone I would recommend PT intervention asap. it gives the client a good understanding, a direction and a structured approach as to what expect in the early, mid and late phases of the process.... hopefully leading to near if not full recovery.

    It might be nice to know that one of the main physiobase/physiobob/physio forum design team had a facial palsy 12 months ago. This was a young male in his early 30's, someone who plays regular sport and leads a healthy lifestyle. It was his treatment early on by me that gave him the peace of mind to work through to full recovery and he continues to design the great stuff you see through out our site week on, week out...

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    I'm happy to see there is a lot of idea about the management of facial palsy.

    It seems some colleagues will concern about Synkinesis for treatment by ES and too early intensive exercise. But do anyone have some guidelines for the precription of these exercises?(such as the intensity, duration etc)

    I also want to know if Synkinesis is developed for the facial palsy patient, what treatment we can do too minimize it?

    Last edited by physiobob; 10-11-2006 at 06:28 PM.

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    Physiobob,

    Asap , searched for its meaning to find you mean as soon as possible .I agree with you regarding the educational role .

    My Question regarding when (Timing ) was concerning the Electro-role as Ultrsound and espicially Electrical Stimulation When ??

    Tung,

    Seems you know Synkinesis ,So why did not you comment regarding it ?
    Seems most of moderate to severe nerve facial injuries develop Synkinesis ,our role could ,unfortunately, share in developing Synkinesis .

    Cheers
    Emad


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    Bell's Palsy

    In my personal experience during the last 8 years while managing a number of patients suffering from Wikipedia reference-linkBell's palsy, the sooner you start the physiotherapeutic intervention, the better, quick and good results you may get. The first two to three weeks for patient with Bell's palsy are very important regarding the treatment point of view. If you start treatment with modalities to reduce the nerve swelling just like doctors use corticosteroids, you get very good results. In my personal experience majority of my patients recovered within the first two to three weeks. Some needed treatment for one and half month. And very few took three months to recover. However, once the pateint comes to you after 2 to three weeks after developing the paralysis, the chances of quick recovery are not as good as you observe with patients who come right after developing the palsy within the first week.

    The role of electrical stimulation is important right from beginning. ES prevents muscle atrophy from being disuse and later in process of nerve degeneration due to trophic changes during long period of paralysis, being most important in maintaining the facial symmetry. So electrical stimulation should be used during the period of paralysis of muscles until such time their re innervation arrives. When the re innervation arrives or re functioning of the muscles starts, one should replace the electrical stimulation with active exerises or muscles re education exercises or PNF exercises to re train the muscles their function.


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    Quote Originally Posted by emad View Post
    Physiobob,

    Asap , searched for its meaning to find you mean as soon as possible .I agree with you regarding the educational role .

    My Question regarding when (Timing ) was concerning the Electro-role as Ultrsound and espicially Electrical Stimulation When ??

    Tung,

    Seems you know Synkinesis ,So why did not you comment regarding it ?
    Seems most of moderate to severe nerve facial injuries develop Synkinesis ,our role could ,unfortunately, share in developing Synkinesis .

    Cheers
    Emad
    syn∑ki∑ne∑sis (sĭn'kə-nē'sĭs, -kī-, sĭng'-) pronunciation, noun.

    Definition: Involuntary movement of muscles or limbs accompanying a voluntary movement.

    Facial synkinesis

    Definition

    Facial synkinesis is the involuntary movement of facial muscles that accompanies purposeful movement of some other set of muscles; for example, facial synkinesis may result in the mouth involuntarily closing or grimacing when the eyes are purposefully closed.

    Description

    Facial synkinesis occurs during recuperation from conditions or injuries that affect the facial nerve, for example during recovery from Wikipedia reference-linkBell's palsy. During recovery, as the facial nerve tries to regenerate, some new nerve twigs may accidentally regrow in close proximity to muscles that they wouldn't normally innervate (stimulate). Facial synkinesis may occur transiently, during recovery, or may become a permanent disability.

    As with all facial injuries or palsies, facial synkinesis can cause considerable emotional distress. Lack of control over one's facial expressions is known to be a serious psychological stressor.

    Interestingly electrotherapy e.g. muscle stimulation has been cited as both a treatment and a cause of synkinesis. The difficult thing to work out is what is compensatory movement and what is a true synkinesis. Any budding or sprouting of a nerve is going to take time to develop and so one cannot possibly suggest that a dyskinesia in the early post facial palsy client is due in fact to synkinesis that has resulted from nerve sprouting. More likely it is due to the client trying to hard to get the appropriate muscles to contract. This is evident all the time in stroke and we call it compensatory strategy or compensatory movements which are the result really of trying to hard.

    it is therefore important to assess whether these movements are due to "effort" or are truely due to unwanted, aberrant movements that occur with volitional and spontaneous movements.

    Causes and symptoms

    Facial synkinesis can follow any injury or condition causing palsy or paralysis of the facial nerve. The most common associated disorder is Bell's palsy; about 40% of all individuals who are recovering from Bell's palsy will experience facial synkinesis during recovery.

    Note: Other conditions that may prompt the development of facial synkinesis include stroke, head injury, birth trauma, head injury, trauma following tumor removal (such as acoustic neuroma), infection, Lyme disease, diabetes, and Wikipedia reference-linkmultiple sclerosis.

    Facial synkinesis can cause a number of abnormalities in the facial muscles. For example, when a patient with facial synkinesis tries to close his or her eyes, the muscles around the mouth may twitch or grimace. Conversely, when the patient tries to smile, the eyes may involuntarily close. The phenomenon of purposeful mouth movements resulting in involuntary eye closing is often referred to as "jaw winking." Unfortunately, as with any facial deformity or disability, facial synkinesis carries with it a high risk of concomitant depression, anxiety, and disruption of interpersonal relationships and employment.

    Diagnosis

    Diagnosis is usually apparent on physical examination. When the patient is asked to move certain facial muscles (i.e., smile), other facial muscles will be activated (e.g., the eyes may close involuntarily). When the underlying condition is unclear, a variety of tests may be required, such as CT or Wikipedia reference-linkMRI scanning or EMG (electromyographic) testing to evaluate the functioning of the facial nerves and muscles.

    Treatment team

    In the broader sense Facial synkinesis may be treated by neurologists, physiotherapists or otorhinolaryngologists.

    Treatment

    Treatment may include:

    * surgery, to remove causative tumors or other sources of pressure on and damage to the facial nerve
    * steroid medications, to decrease inflammation of the facial nerve
    * facial exercises, with and without mirror stimulated feedback
    * electrical stimulation (this remains controversial, and may, in fact, worsen facial synkinesis in some patients)
    * intensive video-assisted, electromyographic feedback facial muscle retraining
    * injections of the paralytic agent botox into the muscle groups that are contracting involuntarily, or "hypervoluntarily"

    Prognosis

    The prognosis of facial synkinesis is quite variable, depending largely on the prognosis of the underlying condition that caused its development.

    Resources


    BOOKS

    Goetz, Christopher G., ed. Textbook of Clinical Neurology. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 2003.

    PERIODICALS

    Armstrong, M. W., R. E. Mountain, and J. A. Murray. "Treatment of facial synkinesis and facial asymmetry with botulinum toxin type A following facial nerve palsy." Clin Otolaryngol 21, no. 1 (February 1996): 15Ė20.

    Messť, S. R. "Oculomotor synkinesis following a midbrain stroke." Neurology 57, no. 6 (September 2001): 1106Ė1107.

    MŁnevver, «elik, Hulki Forta, and «etin Vural. "The Development of Synkinesis after Facial Nerve Paralysis." European Neurology 43 (2000): 147Ė151.

    Zalvan, C., B. Bentsianov, O. Gonzalez-Yanes, and A. Blitzer. "Noncosmetic uses of botulinum toxin." Dermatol Clin 22, no. 2 (April 2004): 187Ė195.

    WEBSITES


    Diels, H. Jacqueline. New concepts in Non-Surgical Facial Nerve Rehabilitation. Bell's Palsy Infosite. (June 2, 2004). http://www.bellspalsy.ws/printretrain.htm.

    Aussie trained Physiotherapist living and working in London, UK.
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    hi.did u tried strapping techniques?


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    Smile

    Quote Originally Posted by mahiaki View Post
    hi.did u tried strapping techniques?
    I am not aware of strapping ever being used on a facial palsy. Do enlighten us if you have developed some type of "mummification"

    Aussie trained Physiotherapist living and working in London, UK.
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    hi. its taping technique. this is done onthe affected side of the face. two pieces of tapes needed. start frm the chin and end finishing near the hairline. another one frm the jaw to the abv area. this is really effective bob. and its very essential too dont u know that sir.


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    Quote Originally Posted by mahiaki View Post
    Hi. it's a taping technique. this is done on the affected side of the face. Two pieces of tape are needed. Start from the chin and end finishing near the hairline. Another one from the jaw to the above area. This is really effective bob. and it's very essential too don't u know that sir.
    Can you please point us to an image showing this technique or upload an image of your own to show us this technique. Also can you please tell us what it is precisely that the tape is trying to achieve? You can tape just about anything but there just be a rationale for what exactly you are trying to achieve.

    Facial Muscles Differ from Skeletal Muscles

    Facial muscle differs from most other skeletal muscle in several significant ways. Facial muscles:

    - Lack muscle spindles
    - Have small motor units
    - Are relatively slow to degenerate
    - Receive emotional as well as volitional neural inputs.

    Muscle Spindles

    The muscle spindle is the physiologic mechanism by which a muscle contraction is produced in response to a shortening of its fiber during a percutaneous stretch. Therapeutic facilitory techniques such as quick stretch, vibration and tapping rely upon the muscle spindle to stimulate muscle contraction. Because they lack spindles, the use of these techniques to elicit a contraction is ineffective in facial muscles.

    Aussie trained Physiotherapist living and working in London, UK.
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